Wound Healing Society

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Hemostatic And Antimicrobial Properties In Unbleached Cotton Nonwoven Blends
J. Vincent Edwards1, Elena Graves1, Nicolette Prevost1, Dorne Yager2, Huzaifah Qureshi2, Joseph Dacorta3, Michael Reynolds1, Brian Condon1.
1Southern Regional Research Center, New Orleans, LA, USA, 2Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA, 3H&H Medical Corporation, Williamsburg, VA, USA.

Background: The need for hemostatic antimicrobial dressings has increased in recent years due to issues in prolonged field care arising from combat trauma in remote areas. We have recently demonstrated that minimally processed “griege” (unbleached) cotton fibers demonstrate enhanced clotting relative to highly processed USP type 7 bleached cotton gauze. This effect is due to the material surface polarity and swell ratio of the fibers that retain complex organic polymers and molecular components present in and near the cotton fiber cuticle. We hypothesized that a textile could be constructed conserving the hemostasis-accelerating properties of minimally processed cotton, while exerting antimicrobial activity. Methods: Spun bond nonwovens of varying surface polarity were designed and prepared based on ratios of greige cotton/ bleached cotton/polypropylene fibers. Thromboelastographic analysis was performed on fabric samples in citrated blood to evaluate the rate and strength of fibrin and clot formation. Lee White clotting times were obtained to assess the materials clotting activity in platelet fresh blood. Electrokinetic analysis of samples was performed to analyze for material surface polarity i.e. plateau potential, and fiber swell ratio. Assessment of antimicrobial activity was performed with an AATCC 100 assay. Fibroblast growth assessments were also performed. Results: Hemostatic properties varied with composition ratios, fiber density, and process hydrostatic pressures and speeds. A correlation of increased percent greige cotton and decreased clotting time demonstrates that greige cotton may be utilized in hemostatic dressings. Antimicrobial activity was observed against gram negative and positive bacteria. No fibroblast cytotoxicity was detected. Conclusion: Hydroentanglement is an efficient and effective process for imparting structural integrity to cotton based textiles, while conserving enhanced hemostatic function and conferring antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates that an affordable and effective hemostatic gauze can be constructed from commonly available materials using high throughput manufacturing methods.


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