Bioactive Placental Allograft Membrane
Paul Bonvallet, Sita Damaraju, Heli Modi, Morakot Likhitpanichkul, Ankur Gandhi, Sunil Saini.
Integra Lifesciences, Plainsboro, NJ, USA.
The growing demand for cell and tissue-based products, such as placental allografts rich in growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix, stems from their ability to accelerate the wound healing process, especially in chronic wounds. However, processing of these placental tissues may damage the inherent factors contained in these membranes. The aim of this study is to assess the bioactivity of a novel, dehydrated amniotic membrane allograft (DAMA) composed of an amnion layer. DAMA was homogenized and assessed for concentrations of growth factors and cytokines. Cell attachment, proliferation, and Type I collagen expression was assessed over a 7 day period with neonatal fibroblasts seeded in the presence of DAMA membranes. A Boyden chamber migration assay, utilizing a porous membrane with cells seeded on one side, was used to assess chemotactic migration of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). To determine whether DAMA can reduce the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, an inflammation assay was performed with lipopolysaccharide activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). DAMA membranes contain viable growth factors and cytokines such as bFGF, EGF, PDGF, IL-4, IL-6, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. Cell and matrix staining show that neonatal fibroblasts not only survive, but are proliferating and expressing Type I collagen in the presence of DAMA. Additionally, DAMA promotes significantly higher hMSC migration than controls (n=4, p<0.05). Finally, supernatants of PBMCs in the presence of DAMA demonstrates reduced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (>90%) for IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and TNF-α as compared to those without DAMA. The culmination of this work suggests that DAMA may improve the chronic wound milieu by providing essential cytokines, and growth factors to create an appropriate environment for wound healing.
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