Fatty Acid Potassium Had Beneficial Bactericidal And Biofilms Removal Effects With Reduced Cytotoxicity Of Fibroblasts And Keratinocytes
sadanori akita1, Takayoshi Kawahara2, Akihiro Masunaga3, Miki Takita3, Hayato Morita3, Tadayuki Tsukatani4, Kouji Nakazawa5, Daisuke Go5.
1Fukuoka University, Fukuoka, Japan, 2Shabondama, KItakyushu, Japan, 3Shabondama, Kitakyushu, Japan, 4Fukuoka Industrial technology Center, Fukuoka, Japan, 5Kitakyushu Municipal University, Fukuoka, Japan.
BACKGROUND: Wounds frequently become infected or contaminated with pathogens such as bacteria. Highly effective but less adversely reactive agents are expected in wound cleansing.
METHODS: A soap is made from alkaline and fatty and fatty acids and in this experiment, several potassium salts of fatty acids were tested.
RESULTS: Potassium oleate (C18:1K), a type of fatty acid potassium and the major component of a soap, caused >4 log colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL reductions in the numbers of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli within 10 min and a >2 log CFU/mL reduction in the number of Clostridium difficile within 1 min. C18:1K (proportion removed: 90.3%) was significantly more effective at removing Staphylococcus aureus biofilms than the synthetic surfactant detergents sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) (74.8%, p < 0.01) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) (78.0%, p < 0.05). In the WST (water-soluble tetrazolium) assay, mouse fibroblasts (BALB/3T3 clone A31) in C18:1K (relative viability vs. control: 102.8%) demonstrated a significantly higher viability than those in SLES (30.1%) or SLS (18.1%, p < 0.05). In a lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage assay, C18:1K (relative leakage vs. control: 108.9%) was found to be associated with a significantly lower LDH leakage from mouse fibroblasts than SLES or SLS (720.6% and 523.4%, respectively; p < 0.05).
CONCLUSIONS: Potassium oleate demonstrated bactericidal effects against various species including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium difficile, removed significantly greater amounts of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm material than SLES and SLS and maintained fibroblast viability; therefore, it might be useful for wound cleaning and peri-wound skin components.
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